When it comes to designing user experiences, it’s important to consider the mental models that users have of how a product or service should work. Mental models are the mental representations that people have of the world around them, including their understanding of how things work and how to interact with them. In UX design, mental models play a key role in determining how easy or difficult it is for users to understand and use a product or service.
However, mismatches can occur between the mental model that a designer has of how a product or service should work and the mental model that a user has of how it should work. This mismatch can lead to confusion and frustration for users, as they may not be able to understand or use the product as intended. So how can designers minimize this friction and align mental models between themselves and their users?
Aligning mental models through clear signifiers, constraints, and feedback
One approach is to apply the concepts from Don Norman’s “The Design of Everyday Things,” which focuses on the importance of clear signifiers, constraints, and feedback in design.
Signifiers: Signifiers are visual or physical cues that help users understand how to interact with a product. For example, if a button is meant to be clicked, it should be visually distinct and labeled with clear text or an icon that indicates its function. Similarly, if a product has multiple modes or settings, signifiers such as labels, icons, or color coding can help users understand how to access and switch between them.
Feedback: Feedback refers to the information that is provided to a user in response to their actions. This can take the form of visual or auditory cues, such as a spinning progress indicator or a confirmation sound, or more detailed information such as error messages or notification messages.
Constraints: Constraints are the limitations or rules that guide a user’s actions and help to prevent errors or confusion. These can include physical constraints, such as the size and shape of a product, or logical constraints, such as the order in which certain steps must be completed. For example, a login form might have constraints that require a user to enter a specific type of information (e.g. a valid email address) or that prevent the user from submitting the form unless all required fields are filled out.
By incorporating these elements into the design of a product or service, designers can help to align their mental model with the mental model of the user, reducing the likelihood of mismatches and minimizing friction.
Minimizing mismatches through user research and consistent design patterns
In addition to applying the concepts of signifiers, feedback, and constraints, there are a few other strategies that designers can use to minimize the mismatching of mental models in UX design:
Conduct user research: User research can help designers to get a better understanding of how users think about and interact with a product, which can inform the design process and help to align the mental model of the designer with that of the user.
Use consistent design patterns: By using consistent design patterns, designers can help users to more easily navigate and understand a product. This can include using familiar layouts and navigation elements, as well as adopting industry-standard design conventions.
By considering these strategies in the design process, designers can help to align their mental model with the mental model of the user, resulting in a smoother and more intuitive user experience.